عنوان مقاله [English]
Landscape is an interdisciplinary discipline and in the analysis of space, it does not pay attention to only the body and physics of the space, but always seeks to understand and recognize the totality and personality of the space, which is the result of the interaction and action of countless social, historical, identity, and activity factors. , physical and the like have been formed. Today, many urban spaces have lost their scenic qualities, even the cities that have historically had a brilliant history in creating quality and meaningful spaces have also lost many of their spatial and scenic qualities. This research aims to study the historical and library sources and the field survey of the historical landscape of the two cities of Semnan and Damghan, as cities that have been historically successful in creating urban spaces, and by examining and analyzing several spaces of these two cities as A case study to identify the cause or causes of landscape decline in Iranian cities.